蘇老師專欄

[ 2019-03-27 ]

魩仔魚、鯷魚、鯡魚、魚苗的英文 Revised   蘇正隆

魩仔魚相當於英文的 whitebait,並不是單一魚種,主要是鯷科 (Engraulidae) 和鯡科 (Clupeidae) 魚種幼苗的統稱,算是個上位詞 (superordinate)。鯷科魚英文的通稱是 anchovies;鯡科魚英文的通稱是 herrings;魚的仔稚魚 (幼苗) 英文叫 fry。Juvenile fish go through various stages... When they have developed to the point where they are capable of feeding themselves, the fish are called fry. (Wikipedia) 因此小心不要把 fish fry (油炸魚) 和 fry of fish (魚苗) 混淆。

根據台灣農委會資料,魚身長 4 公分以下且透明的,稱為「魩」,而魚身在 4 公分以上,魚體黑色且有銀帶者,稱為「鱙」,因此除魚身長短大小而有不同的稱呼外,魩仔魚並非單一魚種。捕撈魩仔魚英文叫 whitebaiting,台灣稱為魩鱙漁業,為保護漁業資源,政府規定每年的5月1日~9月15日為禁漁期。

台灣附近水域魩仔魚之魚種組成會因捕撈期間 (fishing season) 及區域 (fishing ground) 而有明顯的不同,譬如枋寮地區的魩仔魚主要以俗稱苦蚵仔的日本鯷 (Engraulis japonicas),刺公鯷 (Encrasicholina puncrifer),異葉公鯷 (Encrasicholina heteroloba) 等鯷魚類為主。(白色小精靈─魩仔魚,2015,國立東港海事) 

淡水河口近岸水域則以鯷科和鯡科魚類如小沙丁 (Sardinella spp.),刺公鯷 (Encrasicholina puncrifer),杜氏稜鯷 (Thryssa clussumieri),日本鯷 (Engraulis japonicas),異葉公鯷 (Encrasicholina heteroloba),及島嶼小公魚 (Stolephorus insularis) 的仔稚魚為主。 (李明安,〈台灣魩仔魚漁業混獲特性〉,水產試驗所特刊 第5號)

在日本熟魩仔魚稱為 Shirasu (白子), typically comprising the katakuchi-iwashi (片口鰯, juvenile anchovy), urume-iwashi (潤目鰯, juvenile herring) and ma-iwashi (真鰯, juvenile sardine).

在英國 whitebait 主要指鯡科幼魚 (the fry of Clupeidae fish, young sprats, most commonly herring.)  我在 Andover 鄉下 pub 吃過炸 whitebait,(They are normally deep-fried, coated in flour or a light batter, and served very hot with sprinkled lemon juice and bread and butter.) 不過在英國,他們捕撈的 whitebait 比台灣一般的魩仔魚大三四倍。

以下摘自 Wikipedia:
Whitebait is a collective term for the immature fry of fish, typically between 1 and 2 inches (25 and 50 mm) long. Such young fish often travel together in schools along the coast, and move into estuaries and sometimes up rivers where they can be easily caught with fine meshed fishing nets. Whitebaiting is the activity of catching whitebait.

Whitebait are tender and edible, and can be regarded as a delicacy. The entire fish is eaten including head, fins, bones, and guts. Some species make better eating than others, and the particular species that are marketed as "whitebait" varies in different parts of the world. 

As whitebait consists of immature fry of many important food species (such as herring, sprat, sardines, mackerel, bass and many others) it is not an ecologically viable foodstuff and in several countries strict controls on harvesting exist.
(Jerome Su, Revised, March 26, 19)