蘇老師專欄

[ 2019-08-19 ]

<談文論譯>小修與大剪 Trimming & Pruning   蘇正隆

<談文論譯>小修與大剪 Trimming & Pruning 
<談文論譯>修剪 Trimming vs. Pruning     

昨天去台中,碰到一位前台中二中劉老師,聊到我在 FB 上寫的 Trimming vs. Pruning。我說其間的區別,簡單的說 trimming 是「小修」,pruning是「大剪」。他覺得這樣的講法清楚易記。

我原本想這麼寫,但怕過分簡化,所以改成「簡單的說,trimming 算是小修,pruning 是較大幅度的修整。」不過在教學現場的老師如覺得講「小修與大剪」學生比較容易記,那也未嘗不可。此外,也可以說,trim/trimming 重在「修葉」,prune/pruning 重在「剪枝」。演算法 (algorithm) 中為達搜尋順序最佳化的 Alpha-beta pruning 中文就叫「Alpha-beta 剪枝算法」。

修剪矮樹、灌叢,有可能是 trimming,也有可能是 pruning,端看你是「小修」還是「大剪」,但「剪草」通常是 trimming。例如:A neighbor brought over his lawn mower and started trimming the grass for us ….

底下的數據也可佐證:
"trimming the grass for" 約有 7,270 項結果 (Google, 8/26/19)
*"pruning the grass for" 1 項結果

如果你想了解更多關於 trim/trimming 與 prune/pruning 的區別、用法及搭配詞。可以透過 Sketch Engine 的 Word Sketch Difference 功能,瞬間就可以得到一目了然的比較簡表 (Sketch),如果想看例句,點進去有幾千個出自語料庫的語料可供參考。譬如:“He sports a well-trimmed beard.”; “a neatly trimmed nail”; “trim our sails to survive the rocky seas”; “like trimming the excess fat off a steak”; “Lopping shears are similar to pruning shears, but their long handles provide greater leverage.”

不過 Sketch Engine 是付費的語料分析服務,每年訂閱費 NT$2,500, 續訂每年NT$2,000。(Jerome Su, August 16, 19)





<談文論譯>修剪 Trimming vs. Pruning      蘇正隆

常有人問,trimming 是修剪,pruning 也是修剪,有什麼區別?

以下係參考美國幾個主要園藝景觀樹木修剪服務網站的綜合整理:

Trimming主要是指修剪小灌木 (shrubs) 和樹籬 (hedges),pruning 則是修整樹和灌木 (trees and shrubs)。Trimming is essentially applied to shrubs and hedges, pruning is meant for trees and shrubs.

Pruning 主要是為了保護樹木,去除枯死、感染的枝幹,讓樹木可以長得更強健;trimming 是主要是修剪太茂密、影響採光及水份吸收的枝葉,並讓灌木和樹籬看起來整齊美觀。

Pruning is performed in order to protect the tree or shrub which involves removal of dead or loose or infected branches so that the tree or shrub can flourish properly. Trimming is performed to ensure perfect growth of the shrub or hedge, including removing overgrown bushes that prevents the shrub from receiving enough moisture and light. 

當然,trimming 與 pruning 的區別不一定是那麼涇渭分明,會有一些重疊的地方。Sometimes pruning is also done to give a particular shape to the shrub for aesthetic purposes. 不過,簡單的說,trimming 算是小修,pruning 是較大幅度的修整。 (Jerome Su, August 14, 19)

圖 1  bush trimming 取自 Kable Landscaping


圖 2  tree pruning 取自 Bartlett Tree Experts