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[ 2019-08-22 ]

<談文論譯>備轉與備用容量   蘇正隆

Operating Reserve vs. Reserve Margin

昨天媒體報導7月用電破新高,今年7月17日用電刷新歷史紀錄,超越去年8月的3735萬瓩,但備轉率還在10%以上,「證明供電穩定」。根據台電規劃及預估,今年供電都可確保備轉率在10%、備用率在15%以上,…。

提到電力經常出現「備轉容量」與「備用容量」兩個專業術語,往往讓人一頭霧水。幾年前我查過一些英文資料,覺得英文的說法 “Operating Reserve” 與 “Reserve Margin” 較中文清楚,特別是Operating 係「運轉」,因此 “Operating Reserve” 指「備轉容量」,連結就很清楚。

「備轉容量」(Operating Reserve) 就是電力系統當天實際可調度的供電餘裕。In electricity networks, operating reserve is the generating capacity available to the system operator within a short interval of time to meet emergency demands. Most power systems are designed so that the operating reserve is always at least the capacity of the largest supplier plus a fraction of the peak load. (cf. Operating Reserve, Wikipedia)

「備用容量」(Reserve Margin) 是電力系統規劃的尖峰能力 (maximum capacity) 減去系統最高負載 (peak load)。備用容量是用來應付發電機故障和停機檢查所預留的發電容量 (reserve margin)。備用容量率 (Reserve Margin Percentage) 愈大,供電愈可靠,但投資也愈大,成本也愈高。 Taiwan set the reserve margin between power availability and power demand at 6% minimum. Any lower triggers an alert and power rationing (限電) will begin. (cf. Electricity sector in Taiwan, Wikipedia) 因此備用容量率不能太低,也不宜太高。
(Jerome Su, August 21, 19, Revised, August 22)

最後兩段英文已修改過, 如欲分享, 請用新版.