蘇老師專欄

[ 2019-10-16 ]

<談文論譯>猛禽與射鵰三部曲   蘇正隆

常見的猛禽 (bird of prey/raptor) 有禿鷲 (vulture), 鵰、鷲 (eagle), 鷹 (hawk), 鳶 (kite),鵟 (buzzard),蒼鷹 (goshawk),鷂 (harrier), 隼 (falcon) 等。

美國國鳥 bald eagle 中文叫「白頭海鵰」,常見誤譯為「禿鷹」,雖然 bald 也有禿頭的意思,但 bald eagle 頭上覆滿白羽,一點也不「禿」。The bald eagle derives its name from the word "piebald" in reference to the contrast of its white head and tail with dark body. (Wikipedia).

真正禿頭的猛禽是「禿鷲」 (vulture),俗稱「禿鷹」。在商場上,vulture 也作為隱喻,譬如:稱那些入主上市公司,目的是在炒股、淘空資產者為禿鷹集團 (the vultures)。

Condor 也是禿鷲,不過專指美國「加州禿鷲」 California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) 及南美的「安第斯禿鷲」Andean condor (Vultur gryphus)。
Condor is the common name for two species of New World vultures. The name derives from the Quechua kuntur. They are the largest flying land birds in the Western Hemisphere. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) inhabits the Andean mountains. The California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) currently restricted to the western coastal mountains of the United States and Mexico and the northern desert mountains of Arizona in the United States (Wikipedia). 

「鵰/雕、鷲」是大型鷹科 (Accipitridae) 猛禽的泛稱,包括真鵰屬 (Aquila)、海鵰屬 (Haliaeetus) 等屬的鳥類。台灣英文教材裡往往把 eagle (鵰/雕、鷲) 解釋為「鷹」,其實小型猛禽 hawk 才是「鷹」。像曾在2000年,台灣總統大選前,駛向台海的美國航空母艦「小鷹號」,英文就是 Kitty Hawk。

金庸的武俠小說《射鵰英雄傳》、《神鵰俠侶》,英文版的書名分別是 《射鵰英雄傳》 The Legend of the Condor Heroes 《神鵰俠侶》及 The Return of the Condor Heroes,不過中國並無condor,因此 Wikipedia 在介紹 The Legend of the Condor Heroes 時,對英文書名有點意見:The English title is imprecise since neither species of the condor, the Andean condor and Californian condor, is native to China. 

金庸的武俠小說裡的「鵰」以及毛澤東《沁園春》裡「一代天驕,成吉思汗,只識彎弓射大鵰。」的鵰,一般認為係指蒙古、哈薩克一帶的「金雕」 golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)。
The golden eagle is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the most widely distributed species of eagle. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family http:// Accipitridae. These birds are dark brown, with lighter golden-brown plumage on their napes. (Wikipedia) (Jerome Su, Dec. 9, 19)

1.bald eagle, By Saffron Blaze - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18433764
2.vulture
3.golden eagle, By Jarkko Järvinen - Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=44848627